Abstract: The art of developing immunoconjugates combines numerous disciplines such as chemistry, immunology, toxicology and radiology, so it necessitates interdisciplinary skills and know-how. In addition to the obvious therapeutic advantages, there are also several more practical advantages that immunoconjugates have compared to naked antibodies like decrease in the average administered, dose lower treatment costs, producing active cancer antibodies in plants and bacteria which might be a cheaper and easier alternative. This review article provides theory of antibody conjugates, types, preparation, disadvantages, applications, future trends and perspective of immunoconjugates.
Antibodies represent the single largest class of new drug entities under development at this time. There are at least twenty immunotherapeutics currently marketed, with some 150 developmental products currently in clinical evaluation. The possibility of using antibodies as therapeutics was considered almost as early as immunologists came to understand their role as our body's natural defense against foreign agents.
Antibody therapeutics exerts their biological effects by a number of different mechanisms. The one mechanism operates through the involvement of the immune system to induce cytotoxicity of the target cell population. In addition to this mechanism of utilizing the antibody can be used as targeting ligand to target disease sites specifically. By selectively targeting the drug to the site of disease, an antibody can induce the desired biological effects with improved therapeutic index. To date, three antibody conjugate therapies have been approved for marketing. In this regard, active research and development is being pursued on customized antibodies conjugated to toxins, radioisotopes, small drugs, enzymes, and genes that can be deployed to selectively destroy harmful cells in the body. This exciting new technology is finding initial application in oncology, where current chemotherapy drugs cause high toxicity due to lack of specific targeting to tumor cells and tissues.