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THE PHARMA REVIEW (JULY 2009)

A Transdermal Vaccine Adjuvants and Delivery Systems for Effective Immunization

Manjanna.K.M, Shivakumar B.

Abstract: Infections diseases are the world’s leading cause of death. Immunization with several vaccines is one of the major achievements of modern medicine. As a result of immunization diseases such as polio and measles have been controlled and small pox has been eradicated. Vaccines have been shown to be one of the most cost effective, safest and powerful tolls that result in reduction in death rate and increased human survival. Most recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and recombinant DNA technology, one can understand how the antigens are affect to the immune system and how that respond immune activity. The turn of century has witnessed a huge increase in the number of technologies and immunological approaches for new vaccine design. Transdermal vesicular carriers like liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes represent widely exploited class of novel delivery systems for topical applications. Non-invasive vaccination onto the skin using these novel carriers could improve vaccination programs because the administration procedure requires no specially trained personnel and may avoid risk associated with needle prick. These carriers elicit immune response by different mechanisms and acts as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenisity of weak antigens in animal models. The review discusses all recent transdermal vaccines and delivery systems for effective immunization.

Introduction
Immunization is a means of providing protective shield to the body, i.e. immunization or vaccination is a prophylactic approach which the body is shielded or made strong to fight against any incoming pathogenic invasion. Thus immunization generates a force that fights with various micro-organisms and their products (metabolic as well as non-metabolic) which enters through different routes in the body. The immunology is a multidisciplinary science that involves different approaches of vaccination. Vaccines have been shown to be one of the most cost effective, safest and powerful toll that results in reduction of death rate and increased human survival. Most recent advances in molecular biology, immunology and recombinant DNA technology, one can understand how the antigens are affect to immune system and how that respond immune activity. The turn of century has witnessed a huge increase in number of technology and immunological approaches for new vaccine design. Transdermal vesicular carriers like liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes represent widely exploited class of novel delivery systems for topical applications.

Transdermal immunization (TI) techniques are a better option to over come the short coming of intra muscular route of immunization. Among the common routes of parenteral immunization, skin is the only site that becomes function as an immune organ. Skin associated lymphoid tissues contain specialized cells that enhance the immune responses. Transdermal immunization is an innovate investigational technology which promises to be an efficient and cost effective means of immunizing agent. If successful, TI will permit the transcutaneous delivery of vaccines. TI technologies are currently under development by different research group in the world. The ability to vaccinate transcutaneously will be of benefit in all countries but should prove of greatest benefit in developing nations like India.

Especially countries seeking the most cost effective way to reduce disease and infection rates.
TI is intended to avoid the risks and complications associated with percutaneous delivery of vaccines (needles) to eliminate apprehension and pain associated with immunization and to avoid the complication of reuse of disposable syringes and needles, a practice that is purulent in economically emerging countries. In addition TI provide an efficient and cost effective method for vaccinating large populations by reducing the number of personal and amount of medical material required for immunization.

 

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