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THE PHARMA REVIEW (JULY 2009)

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Tactona Grandis in Experimental Animal Models

Atul Kaushik, Meena Kumari, Jeevan Jyoti, Manjari Mittal, Nand Lal, A.C. Agrawal

Abstract: The effect of root extracts (methanol and water) of Tectona grandis Linn. f. (Verbenaceae) on inflammation was evaluated in an experimental model. Treatment with aqueous extract and methanol extract 500 mg/kg p.o. dose level showed more effect on inflammation as compared with the dose level of 250mg/kg p.o. Differences between means were assessed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test using sigma stat software. Both the extracts (methanol and water) significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the development of paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats at the dose level of 500mg/kg. Phytochemical tests showed that methanol and water extracts tested positive for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, sterols and saponins.

Introduction
Plant and plant extracts have been used since the dawn of civilization by man. The use of ethno botanical preparations for various reasons justified or not, is still continued by various cultures around the world.1 One approach to discover newer anti-inflammatory agents is to search for their presence in natural sources. Tectona grandis Linn. f. (Verbenaceae) is a well known for its high grade timber. A large to very large deciduous tree having height up to 35 meters; bark having brown or grey colour and shallow longitudinal furrows; Leaves simple, opposite, broadly ellipical or obovate, acute or acuminate, coriaceous, possessing minute glandular dots; Flowers white, many, small, having pleasant smell, in large erect terminal branched tomentase cymase bladder like calyx; seeds usually, ovate, marble white. Roots are useful in the treatment of urinary system related troubles. According to Unani-system of medicine, the oil from flower is hair promoter and useful in scabies. Wood is good for headache, biliousness, burning sensation and pain and liver related troubles. It allays thirst and possesses anthelmintic and expectorant properties. Khan M.R. and Mlungwana M.S. were isolated a new compound 5- hydroxylapachol along with the known constituents lapachol, dehydro-lapachone, methyl quinizarin and squalene from the root heart wood of T. grandis. Both compounds were found to be cytotoxic to artemia saline (brine shrimp) with a LC50 of 5 ppm. Lapachol was also reported to have anti-ulcer activity. Lack of scientific data with respect to the pharmacological properties of the root of Tectona grandis Linn. f. encouraged for the evaluation of for anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of the extract was also compared with the standard drug viz. Ibuprophen.

Inflammation
Inflammation is a local response of living mammalian tissues to injury. It is a body defense reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent. There are various components to an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Edema formation, leukocyte infiltration and granuloma formation represent such components of inflammation.

 

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