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THE PHARMA REVIEW (JULY AUGUST 2015)

Stereochemical Aspects of Pharmacopoeial Drugs

Vijay K. Kapoor

Introduction: Stereochemistry plays a vital role in understanding the biological actions of organic medicinal agents1. Both the major phenomenon viz pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics after a drug is administered to the body are governed by the arrangement of various atom or group of atoms in a drug molecule. Chiral drug comprise more than one half of the drugs approved worldwide2,3. A rough estimate is that one-third of the chiral drugs are marketed as racemic mixture. In the present communication an overall status of pharmacopoeial drugs, covered up to Indian Pharmacopoeia 20104 was studied. The outcome of the study reveals that out of a total of 583 organic drugs (their salts and derivatives excluded) 313 are chiral in nature, representing 53.68 % (Table 1 and 2). Out of 313 chiral drugs, 220 drugs are marketed as enantiomerically pure form representing 70.28 % (Table 2). Out of total of 583, optically pure drugs represent 37.73 %. Twenty five drugs out of a total of 583 drugs show geometrical isomerism, representing 4.28 %, and out of 25 drugs showing geometrical isomerism 7 are in pure geometrical isomeric form (Z or E) (28 %), and 3 are mixture of Z and E (12 %) (Table 3). There are 245 drugs (42.02 %) of the total which are achiral or do not show geometrical isomerism. 

 

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