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THE PHARMA REVIEW (MARCH - APRIL 2011)

Nanobiosensors : Recent Trends & Applications

Rashmi R. Kokardekar, Hardik R. Mody, Varsha S. Madhav, Aditya Pattani & Pradnya Palekar Shanbhag*

Abstract: Over the past few decades, research and development in the field of nanotechnology has received tremendous attention. Nanotechnology deals with the design, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlled management of size and shape at the nanoscale. Due to large surface area, the physical and chemical properties of material get changed significantly at nanoscale. Nanotechnology has many applications such as nanomedicine, nanofluidics, molecule self assembly, intelligent drug delivery systems, nanomachines. Among these, one is nanobiosensors. A typical nanobiosensor is comprised of three parts namely, sensitive biological element, a transducer and a detector. Optical, electrical, electrochemical, viral, nanoshell, nanowire, nanotube are the various types of nanobiosensors developed. They have found various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in various diseases like cancer, diabetes, to name a few. The present article deals with types and applications of nanobiosensors.
Introduction to Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology can be termed as the design, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlled management of size and shape at the nanoscale that produces structures, devices and systems with at least one new property1.
One nanometer is one billionth of a meter. The physical and chemical properties of material get changed significantly at nanoscale. For e.g. Metals with average size of 10 nm are significantly harder and tougher when compared to hardness and toughness at the size of 1000 mm. This difference in properties is ascribed to two main reasons2:
1. Nanomaterial has large surface area when compared to same mass in larger form. This makes it highly reactive and has an effect on the materialís strength and electrical properties. 2. Quantum effects begin to increase with decrease in size which has an impact on optical, electrical and magnetic properties of material.
Nanotechnology has many applications such as nanomedicine, nanofluidics, molecule self assembly, intelligent drug delivery systems, nanomachines. One of these is nanobiosensors.

 

 

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