Application of Nanotechnology in Biomedical Sciences

Nidhi Agarwal, Nitin Agarwal

Nanomedicine includes the application of nanotechnology in medical sciences. Nanoparticles of dimensions ranging between 1-100 nm are used as diagnostic tools, therapeutics and biomedical research tools. These readily penetrates cell than larger molecules, thus can be used in drug delivery. With the use of nanoparticles it is now possible to deliver drug at molecular level which could help in the treatment of disease like cancer. In contrast to micromolecules, nanoparticles are readily taken up by cells and therefore, could be conveniently used as drug delivery systems. These nanosystems offer greater advantage over conventional drugs as they have specific drug action, improved efficacy and low propensity to cause adverse drug reactions. For therapeutic purpose, drugs can either be integrated in the matrix of the particle or attached to the particle surface. Nanosystems with different constituents and biological properties have been substantially investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. Besides its therapeutic use, engineered nanoparticles, nanodevices or nanomaterials are frequently used as diagnostic tools to monitor progression of disease or drug-induced repair mechanism in human biological systems. The diagnostic tools with higher degree of sensitivity could help early detection of the disease. Nanotechnology has also been used to regenerate tissue, cell culture, biosensor for early detection of disease and other tools in the field of biotechnology. Various nanocarriers being developed are nanocrystals, nanosuspensions, liposomes, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, nanoprobes, dendimers, ceramic nanoparticles etc.


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