Neuroprotective Role and Anti-Amnesic Effect of Docosahexaenoic
Acid and Gamma-Linolenic Acid in Lead Induced Neurological Deficit and Amnesia in Swiss Albino Mice

S. Yadav1, V. Sharma2

Abstract: Lead is virtually toxic to every organ of body including central nervous system where it may manifest as encephalopathy’s and neuropathies, but also various behavioral changes indicative of cerebral dysfunction like; periodic convulsions, irritability, hyperactivity, retardation of normal development, emotional instability, behavioral disorders, low attention span, impaired motor development, and antisocial behavior. The purpose of present study was to characterize the putative neuroprotective role and anti-amnesic effect of docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. PRO-PL (British Biologicals, Bangalore) dietary supplement containing docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid was fed in diet to study neuroprotective role and anti-amnesic effect using rota rod apparatus and elevated-plus maze model respectively. A total number of 48 adult Swiss albino mice of either sex were included in the study consisting of equal numbers (six each) in Standard, Control, Control + Dietary Supplement and Experimental, Experimental + Dietary Supplement Groups. Experimental groups received 4.5% and 5% Lead Nitrate and Lead Acetate Trihydrate orally alone and with Dietary Supplement for a period of 3 weeks. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) and Piracetam (200 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. All the experimental work was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Ref. No.IAEC/257). In rota rod apparatus, there was significant increase in time spent by the animals on revolving rod whereas; in elevated-plus maze there was significant increase in time spent and number of entries into the open arms. Dietary supplement containing docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid shows prominent neuroprotective and anti-amnesic effect in lead induced Swiss albino mice.

Anxiety and depression are extremely dramatic and debilitating multifaceted disorders and it is now becoming clear that without knowledge of both clinical and biological aspects of anxiety and depression, it is impossible to offer effective treatment strategies for the patients. Over the past decades, there has been intensive study of a variety of neurobiological aspects of depression and anxiety. Mice and human share more than 90% of their genes.1 Currently the most widely prescribed medications for anxiety disorders are Benzodiazepines,2 but the clinical applications of Benzodiazepines as Anxiolytics are limited by there unwanted side effects. The use of herbal medications by physicians in Europe and Asia is becoming more common and researchers are exploring the traditional remedies to find a suitable cure for these mind affecting diseases.3 Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder that occurs gradually and results in memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes and ultimately death.4 It is a chronic, progressive disabling organic brain disorder characterized by disturbance of multiple cortical functions, including memory, judgment, orientation, comprehension, learning capacity and language. Nootropic agents such as piracetam,5 pramiracetam, aniracetam6 and choline esterase inhibitors like donepezil are presently used for improving memory, mood and behavior. As the disease progresses, people with Alzheimer’s became unable to care for themselves and loss of brain cells eventually leads to failure of other systems in body. However, the resulting adverse effects associated with these agents have limited their use.7 The present study explores the utility of dietary supplement in the prevention and treatment of various cognitive and anxiety disorders.



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