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THE PHARMA REVIEW (SEPTEMBER - OCTOBER 2011)

Recent Updates on PARP Enzyme and Treatment Option on Breast Cancer

S.S. Kshirsagar*, R.J.Oswal, M.H.Gade, V.S.Kakade, S.K.Chandane, P.B. Nagdeve, S.D. Shinde,

Abstract
Breast cancer is fast growing disease amongst females due to their abnormality in estrogen and progesterone levels. Breast cancer is a common disease with life time risk up to 12% and risk of death up to 5%. Estrogen and progesterone receptor test may tell whether hormones affect the way of cancer growth. The cancer cells have such receptors hence usually hormone therapy has been suggested to breast cancer patients. In present study, we have focused on the PARP enzyme levels responsible for prediction of pathologic response in patients and recent treatment options for breast cancer.
 
Introduction
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women, with a lifetime risk of up to 12% and a risk of death of up to 5%. Its incidence has been increasing but after a period of continuous rise in many industrialized countries BC mortality has been stable or has even decreased in the last 10–15 years. The introduction of mass mammographic screening programmes also resulted in earlier detection and diagnosis of small and less aggressive tumors. This, in combination with therapeutic improvements, has led to a substantial increase in BC survivors over the last few decades. Estrogen and progesterone receptor tests may tell whether hormones affect the way the cancer grows. They may also give information about the chances of the tumor coming back (recurring). The results help a doctor decide whether to use hormone therapy to stop the cancer from growing. Estrogens are involved in numerous physiological processes including the development and maintenance of the female sexual organs, the reproductive cycle, reproduction, and various neuroendocrine functions. These hormones also have crucial roles in certain disease states, particularly in mammary and endometrial carcinomas. Cancer is the leading cause of death among women between the ages of 30 and 54, with breast and uterine cancers comprising 28% and 10%, respectively, of all cancers in females per year. An estimated 217,440 new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed, and 40,580 women in the United States were projected to die from breast cancer in 2004. Currently, one of eight American women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Approximately two thirds of postmenopausal breast cancer patients have hormone-dependent (estrogen-dependent) breast cancer, which contains estrogen receptors and requires estrogen for tumor growth. Estrogens produce normal physiological effects by binding to specific nuclear receptor proteins, estrogen receptor- and estrogen receptor-1. The predominant estrogen receptor in the female reproductive tract and mammary glands is estrogen receptor-. Following the binding of estrogen to its receptor, the estrogen-receptor complexes form homodimers and interact with sequence-specific estrogen response elements present in the promoter region of responsive genes in target cell chromatin. Binding of the nuclear steroid-receptor complexes to DNA and interaction with various nuclear transcriptional factors, such as steroid receptor co-activator proteins, initiate the transcription of the relevant gene to produce mRNA. The elevated mRNA levels result in increased protein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

 

 

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